Vol 12, No 3 (2018)

Diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms: state of the art on 2018
Kachko V.A., Semkina G.V., Platonova N.M., Vanushko V.E., Abrosimov A.Y.

Currently around the world has significantly increased the detection of thyroid nodules. Patients are 60 years old have nodules in the thyroid gland in about 50% of cases and the growth of diagnostics nodules is mainly due to the expansion of the using of screening ultrasound of the thyroid gland. The “gold standard” of diagnosis after ultrasonography remains fine-needle aspiration biopsy, however, approximately 10–30% of cases, cytological result is indeterminate. The indeterminate diagnosis category represents a challenge to clinicians, as most nodules in cases of indeterminate thyroid FNAs are found to be benign in the surgically resected specimens. In this regard, additional methods are needed for pre-operative diagnosis, which would help to understand the nature of thyroid nodules, to reduce the number of diagnostic operations and to improve the quality of patient treatment. In recent years, significant changes have occurred in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors, which we will consider in this review: revision of the protocol TI-RADS, classification Bethesda, change in histological classification and the emergence of a new group of NIFTP. A large number of studies in the field of molecular diagnostics, we will consider the possibility of using molecular testing for diagnostic purposes and the introduction of these methods in clinical practice.

Endocrine Surgery. 2018;12(3):109-127
Original study
Recombinant human thyrotropin in radioiodine diagnostics and radioiodine ablation of patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer: the first experience in Russia
Dedov I.I., Rumyantsev P.O., Nizhegorodova K.S., Slashchuk K.Y., Yasyuchenya V.S., Sheremeta M.S., Degtyarev M.V., Nikankina L.V., Melnichenko G.A.

Background. Traditional endogenous stimulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by means of long-term withdrawal of thyroid hormones for radioiodine diagnostics and radioiodine therapy causes severe hypothyroidism, which worsens patients’ general well-being and may lead to side effects and cause tumor growth and dissemination. Exogenous stimulation with recombinant human TSH (rh-TSH, thyrotropin-alfa) causes short-term increases in TSH levels and does not have the above-mentioned side effects.

Purpose. To estimate the efficacy and safety of rh-TSH in preparation of patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer for radioiodine diagnostics and radioiodine therapy.

Methods. We conducted an interventional single-center prospective unblinded uncontrolled study of the efficacy and safety of thyrotropin-alfa to prepare patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer to radioiodine diagnostics and post-surgery radioiodine ablation. The study included 88 patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer: 54 patients were prepared for post-surgery radioiodine ablation; 34 patients – for radioiodine diagnostics to evaluate combined treatment efficacy and exclusion of tumor recurrence. The level of TSH, thyroglobulin, antibodies to thyroglobulin, whole body scintigraphy, and side effects were measured during exogenous stimulation with thyrotropin-alfa.

Results. The level of TSH reached or exceed the target level (30 mIU/ml) 24 hours after the first injection of recombinant thyrotropin-alfa in 86% of patients; after 48 hours in 100%, the level exceeding 100 IU/ml was observed in 66 (75.1%) patients. The maximum levels of thyroglobulin and antibodies to thyroglobulin were reached 72 and 48 hours after the first injection, respectively. The injections of thyrotropin-alfa were well-tolerated by the patients. In the group for radioiodine diagnostics 2 (5.8%) patients complained of fatigue, 1 (2.9%) patient had signs of dyspeptic disorder, while in the group for radioiodine ablation 4 (7.4%) patients complained of fatigue, 1 (1.8%) patient had marked memory problems that disappeared later (they must have been caused by the patient’s advanced age (82 years)).

Conclusions. Exogenous recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin-alpha) is highly effective in preparation of patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer for radioiodine diagnostics and radioiodine ablation. It does not have side effects, which are typical of withdrawal of thyroid hormones. The levels of thyroglobulin and antibodies to thyroglobulin measured 72 hours after the first injection of thyrotropin-alfa have the biggest diagnostic informative value.

Endocrine Surgery. 2018;12(3):128-139
Clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment of the hand-foot syndrome – skin toxicity of antitumor target therapy with multi-kinase inhibitors
Shatokhina E.A., Kruglova L.S., Shukhov O.A.

Background. The effective treatment of the hand-foot syndrome is a necessary component of the complex treatment of patients receiving antitumor therapy with multikinase inhibitors.

Aims. The assessment of a new effective method for the treatment of palm-plantar syndrome in patients receiving multi-kinase inhibitors.

Materials and methods. There are 27 patients received antitumor treatment with multi-kinase inhibitors and had clinical manifestations of the hand-foot syndrome (HFS) for observation. The main group (14 patients) used a combination of an alpha-lipoic acid at a dose of 600 mg per day per os and an ointment containing 0.005% calcipotriol and 0.05% betamethasone dipropionate 2 times a day. The control group, included 13 patients, used a combination with a cream containing 10% urea and ointment containing 0.05% betamethasone dipropionate.

Results. After a week of treatment, the regression of the skin process was observed in both groups, but it was more evident in the main group: significant differences in severity of erythema, paresthesia, pain and burning sensation, the Dermatological Life Quality Index (DLQI) were observed at this stage of therapy (p < 0.05). After 2 weeks of therapy: a more positive trend in the main group in terms of erythema, paresthesia and burning, but the most significant difference is DLQI – 17.4 in the main group and 22.8 in the control group (p < 0.0001). At the end of the 3rd week of therapy: differences with the main characteristics of erythema, desquamation, paresthesia (p < 0.0008), pain (p < 0.0001), DLQI (p < 0.0001). At the end point of the study (after 4 weeks of therapy), significant differences were found in reducing the symptoms and the main parameters for evaluating the effectiveness of DLQI in patients of the main group with a reliability of p < 0.0001. The high correlation of DLQI was found with erythema, pain, burning, paresthesia and desquamation.

Conclusions. The treatment of the hand-foot plantar syndrome combined using alpha-lipoic acid inside and topical therapy in the form of an ointment containing calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate, can be recommended for patients receiving targeted therapy with multi-kinaseinhibitors.

Endocrine Surgery. 2018;12(3):140-149
Clinical Case
Differential diagnosis of adrenal gland tumor: rare case report
Volkova N.I., Ganenko L.A., Mazhuhin V.Y., Shevchenko A.N.

With the advent of high-resolution research methods (CT, MRI), randomly detectable formations in the adrenal glands became a clinical problem. The incidence of incidental adrenal glands varies between studies. So, according to the latest data, IN is detected in about 4-5% of patients who underwent radiological imaging. A clinical observation of a 39-year-old patient with complaints of persistent increase in blood pressure is presented. In the course of a routine ultrasound of the kidneys, the formation of a left adrenal gland was revealed. According to the data of the subsequent examination (adrenal SCT with contrast, determination of the hormonal profile), adrenocortical cancer, a glucocorticoid producing, was diagnosed. The patient underwent surgical treatment in the volume of left laparoscopic adrenalectomy. However, according to the results of a postoperative histological and immunohistochemical study, pheochromocytoma was diagnosed. The patient was discharged in satisfactory condition under the supervision of an endocrinologist and a surgeon. This clinical observation demonstrates that the “ideal” diagnostic approaches for differential diagnosis of IN have not yet been developed. Therefore, the continuation of research aimed at improving the diagnostic algorithm, which makes it possible to more accurately determine the morphological nature of education and its hormonal activity at the preoperative stage, is relevant both in scientific and in practical terms.

Endocrine Surgery. 2018;12(3):150-156

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