Vol 11, No 4 (2017)

Review of literature
Biobanking in oncology and radiology
Roumiantsev P.O., Mudunov A.M.
Abstract

The first biobank in Russia was created in 1998 to investigate post-Chernobyl thyroid tumors. The number of biobanks in the world is growing. Infrastructure and collaboration are improving. Ethical, legal and methodological guidelines for biobanking have been developed and are regularly reviewed. Biobanking objects are now not only biological samples of patients but also their dynamic biomedical characteristics. Comparison of genetics, proteome and tumour metabolism and in vivo radiological visualization is necessary to improve personalized diagnostics, treatment and its effectiveness. The article focuses on international evidence-based experience of sample preparation and cryopreservation of biological samples, information logistics, and integration solutions in biobanking. Guiding principles and the model of a modern biobank, integrating up-to-date technologies of digital personalized medicine and telemedicine in oncology and radiology are reported. The article may be of interest to a wide range of experts in biomedicine, especially oncologists, radiologists, pathologists, geneticists, and IT specialists.

Endocrine Surgery. 2017;11(4):170-177
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Radionuclide imaging and therapy in patients with neuroendocrine tumors
Baranova O.D., Roumiantsev P.O., Slashchuk K.Y., Petrov L.O.
Abstract

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are heterogeneous group of the tumors that arise from the enterochromaffin cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system and occurr in 0.5% of all neoplasms. Recently there has been a significant increase in the incidence of neuroendocrine tumors, which is undoubtedly associated with the improvement of diagnostic methods. However, despite significant success in studying the biological and molecular mechanisms of its behavior, a single algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors remains unclear today. Treatment of neuroendocrine tumors largely depends on their functional status and the stage of the disease. While the treatment of localized NETs is surgical resection, varieties of therapeutic options are available for patients with advanced NETs. These include medical control of excess hormone levels and associated symptoms, cytoreductive surgery for patients with advanced disease, systemic chemotherapy, somatostatin analogues, and peptide receptor-targeted radionuclide therapy. However, the right choice of the therapeutic approach in current clinical practice in heterogeneous group of patients with neuroendocrine tumors requires further discussion.

Endocrine Surgery. 2017;11(4):178-190
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Clinical practice
Effectiveness of surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism with urolithiasis: correction of symptoms, laboratory parameters and stone-forming risk
Sergiyko S.V., Rogozin D.S.
Abstract

Background. Parathyroidectomy is the only effective method to improve the clinical and laboratory manifestations of the primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and reduce the risk of urinary calculi formation. However, there are controversies about the existence of renal form of PHPT and about the effectiveness of surgery with regard to the risk of stone formation.

Aims. To evaluate the effectiveness of PHPT surgical treatment in relation to clinical, laboratory parameters, as well as the risk of stone formation.

Materials and methods. In a prospective single-arm observation one-center nonrandomized study we included patients with PHPT in whom parathyroidectomy was performed in 2012–2015. We analyzed clinical and laboratory parameters before and after surgery in a period from 1 to 3 years.

Results. The study included 105 patients, of whom 35 (33.3%) had urolithiasis. Blood calcium after the surgery decreased from 2.72 mmol/l [2,56; 2,97] to 2,3 mmol/l [2,2; 2,35], p < 0.001. Blood calcium concentration decreased to normal values in all patients. Parathyroid hormone level decreased from 206 pg/ml [123; 347] to 72,8 pg/ml [30; 113], p < 0.001. Clinical symptoms questionnaire estmation decreased from 4 points [3; 6] to 2 points [1; 4], p < 0.001. In patients with urolithiasis clinical symptoms before treatment were more pronounced – 5 points [3; 7] vs. 4 points [3; 5] (p = 0.015) and decreased more significantly – by 3 points [2; 4] vs 2 points [1; 3]. The daily calcium urine excretion decreased from 11.4 mmol/day [8.9; 13.9] to 5.4 mmol/day [4.1; 6.8], p < 0.001. In 2 cases (5.7%; CI, 0.7–19.2%) we observed the progression of urolithiasis after surgery. The age of patients correlated with daily calcium urine excretion after surgery (r = 0.69; p = 0.028).

Conclusions. Parathyroidectomy normalizes blood calcium and parathyroid hormone, improves clinical symptoms and reduces the risk of stone formation.

Endocrine Surgery. 2017;11(4):191-200
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Clinical Case
Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea in young women after 6.5 years of therapy giant prolactinoma with Cabergolin
Astafyeva L.I., Kadashev B.A., Kalinin P.L., Kutin M.A., Sidneva Y.G., Ismailov D.B., Chernov I.V., Yatsenko D.A., Dzeranova L.K.
Abstract

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a rare complication in of the prolactinomas treatment with dopamine agonists. In most cases CSF leak develops within the first three months of treatment starting. The article presents a rare clinical case – later development of CSF leak after pharmacological treatment of giant prolactinoma. Women 29 years with giant endo-supra-infra-laterasellar pituitary adenoma (8,7 cm in diameter), visual impairment, cachexia, secondary amenorrhea and prolactin level more than 2 million 200 thousand mU/l treated with cabergoline. On this background, complete regression of the tumor, recovery of visual function, body mass and normalization of prolactin level was marked. Nevertheless, after 6.5 years after beginning of cabergoline therapy CSF leak occured, which required endoscopic endonasal surgery with the plastic of a CSF fistula. All patients with large and giant prolactinomas which invade into skull base structures, receiving cabergoline even for a long time, should be aware of the possibility of such complications as CSF leak and, if necessary, should urgent appeals to the otolaryngologist and the neurosurgeon. In this case closure of skull base defect is a main tactics of treatment.

Endocrine Surgery. 2017;11(4):201-208
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