Vol 13, No 3 (2019)

Review of literature
Interdisciplinary data bank in oncoendocrinology. Medullary thyroid cancer and type 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes
Rumiantsev P.O., Slashchuk K.Y., Korenev S.V., Goncharov A.G., Beltsevich D.G., Chukhacheva O.S.
Abstract

Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is about 5% of all thyroid carcinomas and is hereditary in 20–30% of cases. Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2 (MEN2), in addition to medullary thyroid cancer, may include pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism, and some other manifestations.

The multidisciplinary data bank (MDB) developed by us is a specialized resource for storing, accumulating and subsequent analysis of data on patients with MTC and MEN2 syndromes. The MDB allows you to collect data from any sources (primary care, medical institutions at various levels, federal centers) and provides internal automated control of the quality and quantity of input data. It is necessary to keep a record of such data to improve the efficiency of diagnostics, treatment and rehabilitation of patients.

MDB is an integrated digital platform containing reference materials for doctors, which allows combining evidence-based clinical experience in patients, and provides the opportunity for expert support of medical decisions. In the long run, it will help us organize digitally stored data for machine learning and lays the groundwork for the development of artificial neural networks.

Endocrine Surgery. 2019;13(3):105-117
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Original study
Possibilities of preoperative ultrasound of neck vessels in the diagnosis of non-recurrent laryngeal nerve
Kuprin A.A., Malyuga V.Y.
Abstract

Background: According to the anatomical data, the non-recurrent laryngeal nerve is a rather common abnormality and can be found in 4.78% of people. At the same time, the non-recurrent laryngeal nerve is difficult to visualize during surgery, which increases the risk of its damage.

Aim: to determine the possibilities of ultrasound of neck vessels in the preoperative diagnosis of the aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria) and the abnormality of the branches of the vagus nerve.

Materials and methods: An observational, single-center, single-stage, randomized, uncontrolled clinical trial was performed, which included patients in whom surgery was performed due to thyroid and parathyroid pathology. In the preoperative period, all patients underwent the ultrasound of the right half of the neck vessels and the mediastinum with visualization of the brachiocephalic trunk and its branches. When the brachiocephalic trunk was detected in the preoperative period, mobilization of the thyroid gland during operation was started with ligation of the upper pole vessels, and followed by a search for the recurrent laryngeal nerve. However, if the brachiocephalic trunk was absent, the right common carotid artery was traced as low as possible to the aortic arch and assessed on its relationship with the right subclavian artery. In such cases, thyroid mobilization was started from the lateral surface of the lobe with the necessary visualization of all structures of this region and followed by a primary search for the inferior laryngeal nerve. When the non-recurrent laryngeal nerve was detected, the computed tomography of the brachiocephalic arteries was performed in the postoperative period.

Results: The study has shown that 202 (95.28%) patients out of the total 212 revealed the brachiocephalic trunk on preoperative ultrasound and the recurrent laryngeal nerve was located in a the typical place. Arteria lusoria was detected in 4 (1.89%) cases after the preoperative ultrasound. In this group of patients the non-recurrent laryngeal nerve was identified during operation and the aberrant right subclavian artery was confirmed at computed tomography. In 6 (2.83%) cases the brachiocephalic trunk could not be detected on ultrasound due to the constitutional features of the patient. However, in all these cases, the typical recurrent laryngeal nerve was identified during a surgery.

Conclusions: The ultrasound of the neck vessels is the effective method to detect arteria lusoria, which is the predictor of the non-recurrent laryngeal nerve.

Endocrine Surgery. 2019;13(3):118-132
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Clinical Case
Riedel's Thyroiditis. A Clinical Review.
Pokrovskaya E.V., Beltsevich D.G., Abrosimov A.Y., Lishchuk S.V., Voskoboynikov V.V., Chevais A.
Abstract

Riedel`s thyroiditis is a rare disease with an unknown etiology, which is characterized by replacement of the thyroid gland tissue with a fibrous connective tissue, the main characteristic sign is the stony-hard texture of the gland, extending to the surrounding structures (trachea, esophagus, blood vessels and nerves). Dense adhesion causes clinical symptoms of tracheal compression, such as shortness of breath, hoarseness, coughing and dyspnoea. Regarding functional activity, both euthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis with the subsequent development of hypothyroidism can be observed. A difficult preoperative diagnosis allows only to suspect this disease, as well as differentiate it with some aggressive forms of cancer, and therefore the final diagnosis is possible only after histological and immunohistochemical examinations of postoperative material. The conservative treatment (mainly glucocorticoid drugs) and surgical intervention can be applied. It is necessary to be meticulous about the choice of a treatment method, taking into account the firmly adhesion with surrounding structures and a high risk of complications of surgical treatment of the thyroid gland. This case report describes a patient with a confirmed morphological diagnosis of Riedel's thyroiditis after thyroidectomy. The peculiarity of this case is a clear positive correlation of the occurrence of subfebrile fever with the onset of the disease and its resolution after surgical treatment and a 11-month follow-up period.

Endocrine Surgery. 2019;13(3):133-140
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Gestational gigantomastia accompained by distal breast tissue necrosis. A case report
Chevais A., Ischenko A.L., Beltsevich D.G., Voskoboynikov V.V., Kurdyukov V.N., Pokrovskaya E.V.
Abstract

Rare condition characterized by an intensive and excessive breast enlargement is known as gigantomastia. Gestational gigantomastia manifests during pregnancy and could represent a life-threatening condition for both the mother and the fetus, therefore the risk of spontaneous abortion complicates the choice of treatment approach. We present a clinical case of a patient requesting medical assistance with a progressive breast growth. The onset occurred on the 5th week of gestation and, subsequently, was aggravated by distal tissue necrosis. The ambiguity of treatment approach in such situation is based on, on the one hand, the insecurity of watch-and-wait approach due to the high risk of septic complications and, on the other hand, the increasing danger of fetal loss in the case of surgical treatment during the first trimester of pregnancy. After an adequate assessment of mother’s health state, a decision was made towards the wait-and-see tactic until the complete formation of the placental barrier. A total bilateral mastectomy was performed at the 19th week of pregnancy, with a favorable outcome for the patient and her child. This case emphasizes the significance of an individual, interdisciplinary approach to the choice of management for patients with this pathology.

Endocrine Surgery. 2019;13(3):141-147
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